Sport & Exercise Science (Online Support)

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What is Sport and Exercise Science?

Sport science is often a misconstrued profession that is inaccurately defined. This discipline is unique and can positively impact on sporting performance.  Sport science can be defined as the study of improving and maximising athletic performance. This area of enquiry is embedded in physiology, biomechanics, nutrition and exercise programming (Figure 1).   In particular, examination and enquiry of how these different systems interrelate to maximise athletic performance and how manipulation of different training paradigms can help to achieve these goals.

Additionally, particular areas of research also investigate issues that are essential not only to maximise athletic performance but also to maintain performance during phases of intense training.  This involves the examination of markers used to predict fatigue or overtraining syndrome; examination of methods that may enhance recovery from sport or training including ergogenic aids, deep tissue massage, and also methods used to predict sporting performance.

Sports science involves elements that are ‘hands-on’ when working with athletes. For example, exercise scientists perform research on recreationally trained individuals we could not infer their results to a competitive athlete. If we did except this inference then we violate the principle of specificity. 

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Figure 1. Sport and exercise sciences origins and subdisciplines

About These Free Resources

Click the quick link buttons below to gain full access of several developed teaching and learning resources for sport and exercise undergraduate students, including SCQF Level 7 and 8 in Fitness, Health & Exercise/ Sports Science award. More content will be added over the next few weeks to aid you in your studies.  Additionally, the content is also useful for those individuals that wish to further develop their own personal knowledge in sport and exercise science. 

Physiology: An Introduction

Research in Sport

The Endocrine System

Working with Clients 

Applied Fitness Testing

Free Mock Exam Papers

SQA Graded Unit Project Support

Assessment Answers


Special Population Groups & Exercise

Senior Therapy

A specific skill set is required when designing exercise programs for special populations. A comprehensive understanding is needed regarding the needs and limitations of the specific group.  It is important to understand that each population group has each their own needs, and these can differ widely. For example, while those with osteoporosis require a focus on load-bearing exercises to improve their mineral bone density and content, the approach when working with an individual that has undergone cardiac rehabilitation is completely different.

At we have provided comprehensive resources that will enable you to understand and implement current research of exercise and special population groups. 

Exercise Referral



Health Screening


Neurologic Conditions

Cancer & Exercise


Older Adults

Exercise Psychology